## 100 - Domimatrix

`n`numbers on the main diagonal. The other numbers can be placed in any order.

# C++ solution (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #include <cstdio> 2 #include <algorithm> 3 #include <functional> 4 5 int v[10005]; 6 7 int main(void){ 8 int n; 9 scanf("%d", &n); 10 for(int i = 0 ; i < n * n ; i++) 11 scanf("%d", v + i); 12 std::sort(v, v + n * n, std::greater<int>()); 13 14 int p = n; 15 for(int i = 0 ; i < n ; i++) { 16 for(int j = 0 ; j < n ; j++) 17 printf("%d ", i == j ? v[i] : v[p++]); 18 puts(""); 19 } 20 return 0; 21 }

# Perl soluton (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #!/usr/bin/perl 2 use v5.14; 3 use warnings; 4 5 my $n = <>; 6 my @v = sort { $b <=> $a } split ' ', <>; 7 my $p = $n; 8 9 for my $i (1 .. $n) { 10 for my $j (1 .. $n) { 11 print $i == $j ? $v[$i - 1] : $v[$p++], ' ' 12 } 13 say ''; 14 }

## 250 - Folklore

Since any number can be written as a sum of powers of 2, it is enough to print the powers of 2 from 2^{0} to 2^{20}.

## C solution (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #include<stdio.h> 2 3 int main(void){ 4 int i; 5 puts("20"); 6 for(i = 0 ; i < 20 ; i++) 7 printf("%d ", 1 << i); 8 return 0; 9 }

## Perl solution (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #!/usr/bin/perl 2 use v5.14; 3 use warnings; 4 5 $, = ' '; 6 say 20; 7 say map { 1 << $_ } 0 .. 19;

## Python solution (Sergiu Puscas)

1 print '20\n' + ' '.join([str(2**x) for x in range(0, 20)])

## 500 - ArchLord

Firstly, we should analyse the sample input. As we can see for two holes on each column, we have 56 ways to connect the given 4 holes with the infinite long shoelace. By watching the 9 possible ways to connect the holes in the case where the order does not matter, we can easily observe that by permuting the given array, we will obtain new arrays which have the same properties as the initial one: it connects at least one hole on each side and also each hole is connected once only.

The 9 possible solutions when the order does not count are these:

` 1-3 1-4 2-3 2-4 1-3-4 2-3-4 1-2-3 1-2-4 1-2-3-4 `

Thus, if we permute each of them we obtain: `4*2! + 4*3! + 1*4! = 8 + 24 + 24 = 56`

So our first guess is that a valid formula is:`sum of (N choose X) * (N choose Y) * (X+Y)! where X = 1,N and Y = 1,N`.

However, as the number of holes on a column is N < 4*10^{6} a O(N^{2}) or even worse O(N^{2}logMod) algorithm will exceed the time limit. Thus we have to think for a different solution.

We can use the inclusion and exclusion principle to divide all the possible types of solutions in two categories: all the possible solutions (which do not repeat a hole) and the incorrect solutions (which do not repeat a hole but do not respect the other criteria). Thus, the number of correct solutions equals the difference between these two.

Lets define `Aranj(N,K)` the number `(N choose K) * K!`. Thus the number of possible solutions (correct and incorrect - but not by repeating a hole) is the sum of `Aranj(2*N,X)` where X=1,2*N. If we force now our picking system to break the criteria that "the shoelace connects at least one hole from the left side column and one hole from the right side column" we have sum of 2*Aranj(N,Y) where Y=1,N ways to tie the shoelace incorrectly (it is symmetrical for both left column and right column). Thus, if we define `F(K)= sum of Aranj(K,X) with X=1,K`; the O(N) formula is:

F(2*N) - 2*F(N)

# C++ solution (Gabriel Robert Inelus)

1 #include <iostream> 2 #define M 666013 3 int F(int x){ 4 int a = 0,v = 1; 5 for(int i = x; i >= 1; --i){ 6 v = (1LL * v * i) % M; 7 a = (a + v) % M; 8 } 9 return a%M; 10 } 11 int main(){ 12 int N; 13 std::cin>>N; 14 std::cout<<((F(2*N)%M - 2*F(N))%M+M)%M; 15 return 0; 16 }

# C solution (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #include <stdio.h> 2 #define MOD 666013 3 4 int main(void){ 5 int n, i; 6 long long cur = 1, total = 0; 7 scanf("%d", &n); 8 for(i = n ; i >= 1 ; i--) 9 cur = cur * i % MOD, total = (total - 2 * cur + 2 * MOD) % MOD; 10 cur = 1; 11 for(i = 2*n ; i >= 1 ; i--) 12 cur = cur * i % MOD, total = (total + cur) % MOD; 13 printf("%lld", total); 14 return 0; 15 }

# Perl solution (Marius Gavrilescu)

1 #!/usr/bin/perl 2 use v5.14; 3 use warnings; 4 5 use constant MOD => 666013; 6 7 my $nr = <>; 8 9 my ($total, $mcur, $pcur) = (0, 1, 1); 10 for (reverse 1 .. $nr) { 11 $pcur = $pcur * $_ % MOD; 12 $total -= 2 * $pcur; 13 } 14 for (reverse 1 .. 2*$nr) { 15 $mcur = $mcur * $_ % MOD; 16 $total += $mcur; 17 } 18 19 say (($total + MOD) % MOD);

## 1000 - FloodIt

The first idea that comes to mind is generating all possible sequences of no more than 25 steps. Considering the large number of configurations, we are constrained to limiting the number of steps (*e.g.* no more than 5) through which we "look ahead" and plan accordingly.

This way, for any board configuration, we want to define the cost of one step, and try to somehow bring it to a minimum.

The notion of a "cost" can be defined in several ways:

- the number of connected components (most important)
- the number of edge cells that are visited
- the number of edges reached (least important)

By merging all three heuristics, we can develop a strategy that is good enough to pass most test cases.

However, there are still some tests where our method exceeds the 25-step limit. In this situation, we keep track of the first 25 steps, choose a random step where we try a different color, and rebuild the configuration from there on. If the sequence is still too long, we go back to the previous step and apply the same idea.